You have a system of products and categories and you want a product to be allowed to be in multiple categories, but you want a product to only be allowed to be in one main category. How do you enforce this rule in the database?
Some people will say -- why can't you just deal with this in your application logic. Our general reason is that much of our updating doesn't happen at our application level. We like enforcing rules at the database level because it saves us from ourselves. We are in the business of massaging data. For this particular kind of example we wanted to make sure the database would provide us a nice safety net so that we wouldn't accidentally assign a product in two main categories.Answer
There are two approaches we thought of. One is the obvious have a primary category column and a bridge table that has secondary categories. That is an ugly solution because when you do a query you have to do a union and always treat the secondary categories as different from the main. For most use-cases we don't usually care about distinguisihing primary from secondary category.
The solution we finally settled on was to have one bridge table with a boolean field for if its the main category. We enforce the only one main category requirement using a partial index. Now not all databases support partial indexes This is one major value of using PostgreSQL that you have so many more options for implementing logic.
So how does the partial index solution look: NOTE for simplicity, we are leaving out all the complimentary tables and the foreign key constraints that we also have in place.
CREATE TABLE products_categories ( category_id integer NOT NULL, product_id integer NOT NULL, main boolean NOT NULL DEFAULT false, orderby integer NOT NULL DEFAULT 0, CONSTRAINT products_categories_pkey PRIMARY KEY (category_id, product_id) ); CREATE UNIQUE INDEX idx_products_categories_primary ON products_categories USING btree (product_id) WHERE main = true;
Testing it out. It saves us and gives us a nice informative message to boot.
-- now we test our safety net INSERT INTO products_categories(category_id, product_id, main) VALUES (1,2,true), (3,2,false), (3,3,true), (4,2,true); --which gives us error ERROR: duplicate key value violates unique constraint "idx_products_categories_primary" DETAIL: Key (product_id)=(2) already exists.